AD государства - разработчика изделия обязательно для всех?

Техник

Техник

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Задачка такая страна член EASA выпустила АД на двигатель.
Есть несколько мнений (авиационных властей, в том числе) по тому какие ВС под эту АД подпадают.
1. АД обязательно для ВС под любой регистрацией, так как выпущена страной разработчика (и я с этим согласен);

2. АД до её выпуска самой ЕАСА распространяется только на самолеты под регистрацией страны, которой АД выпущена;

3. Для того, чтобы АД распространялась на самолеты под регистрацией другого государства - это государство должно выпустить свою АД.

Все три мнения в той или иной мере подтверждены разговорами с офисами ав. властей в разных странах.
ЗЫ Приводим ссылки на документы.
 
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FW

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АД обязательно для ВС под любой регистрацией, так как выпущена страной разработчика (и я с этим согласен)
:agree: аксиома, доказательств не требуется. абсолютно верно.
АД до её выпуска самой ЕАСА распространяется только на самолеты под регистрацией страны, которой АД выпущена
неверно, т.к. "опирэйтор" несёт ответственность за выполнение СБ на основе которых написаны АД, он так же ответственен за отслеживание АД страны разработчика двигателя.
Для того, чтобы АД распространялась на самолеты под регистрацией другого государства - это государство должно выпустить свою АД.
а если не выпустит? "Ждать у моря погоды?" По моему мнению, единственно верный и безопасный путь- это ответ на пункт 1.
 
Техник

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т.к. "опирэйтор" несёт ответственность за выполнение СБ на основе которых написаны АД
В нашем случае СБ нет и не будет - AD-D-2008-222


доказательств не требуется. абсолютно верно.
Есть и другие мнения.:D
" The LBххх have forwarded this AD to all authorities but unless that authority decides to publish it (which they should do if Gerххх is the state of design), operators will not get visibility.

I spoke to the Brххх CAA today, they received this AD two weeks ago but will not be publishing it in their AD list. So if this is the case, and EASA do not publish it, how does a G registered aircraft operator find out about the AD?

I also was under the impression that all operators would have to comply with this AD because Gerххх is the state of design, but the EASA office made it very clear to me today that that was not the case!
 
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FW

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так сразу бы и говорил. :D
В этом случае, я не согласен с высказыванием по пункту 2. Инициатива одного из агенств, возможна и легитимна без вмешательства ЕАSA и является основанием к действию. Всё равно какую регистрацию носит самолёт.
Жаль того "счастливца" с этими двумя двигунами. Кстати, я бы поговорил (с позиции силы) с RR, для начала.

ЕАSA или родное Lxx не выпускают например AD/LTA по Е135, но я смотрю каждый день АNAC.

P.S. жду не дождусь :rolleyes: смерти ЛBA (и других евроагенств) под тяжестю ЕАSА. Только нерабериха.
 
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Приводим ссылки на документы.
Вот выдержка толкования этого вопроса из новой редакции Руководства ИКАО по летной годности (ICAO Airworthiness Manual, Doc. 9760):
".................................................
4.4 EXCHANGE AND USE OF CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS INFORMATION

4.4.1 Introduction

4.4.1.1 Aircraft are designed and certificated to airworthiness standards. In service, however, faults, malfunctions, defects and other occurrences (service difficulties) may be experienced. To satisfy their responsibilities under the Convention on International Civil Aviation, it is essential that States of Registry are kept informed of service difficulties by their operators and maintenance organisations.

4.4.1.2 Furthermore, it is also essential that the type design organisation and the State of Design are kept informed of service difficulties. The type design organisation, receiving this kind of information from all operators of the type of aircraft, is in the best position to develop recommendations to solve the problems of the aircraft in service. The State of Design, being the certificating authority of the type of aircraft will, if necessary, make these recommendations mandatory and initiate changes to the airworthiness requirements if appropriate.

4.4.1.3 The recommendations (service bulletins, etc.) issued by the type design organisation and the information made mandatory by the State of Design (airworthiness directives, etc.) should be obtained by all operators and their authorities and appropriate actions taken.

4.4.1.4 Because it is clear that a proper exchange and use of continuing airworthiness information is essential for the continuing airworthiness of aircraft, relevant requirements are incorporated in Annex 6 and Annex 8 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

4.4.1.5 This part of the manual provides guidance material on these requirements. Section 4.4.2 below provides guidance on mandatory airworthiness information, while section 4.4.3 provides material on other airworthiness information.

4.4.2 Mandatory Airworthiness Information

4.4.2.1 Mandatory Airworthiness Information to be Transmitted by the State of Design

4.4.2.1.1 Annex 8, Part II, 4.2.1.1 states:

“The State of Design of an aircraft shall …transmit to every Contracting State which has in accordance with 4.2.3a) advised the State of Design that it has entered the aircraft on its register, and to any other Contracting State upon request, any generally applicable information which it has found necessary for the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft, including its engines and propellers when applicable, and for the safe operation of the aircraft (herein called mandatory airworthiness information) …”

Note 1.— In Annex 8, Part II, Note 1 to paragraph 4.2.1.1 states that the term ‘mandatory continuing airworthiness information’ is intended to include mandatory requirements for modification, replacement of parts or inspection of aircraft and amendment of operating limitations and procedures. Among such information is that issued by Contracting States in the form of Airworthiness Directives.

Note 2.— ICAO Circular 95 — The Continuing Airworthiness of Aircraft in Service — provides the necessary information to assist Contracting States in establishing contact with competent authorities of other Contracting States, for the purpose of maintaining continuing airworthiness of aircraft in service.”

(Refer to Part III, Chapter 4, Section 4.4.5 for more detail regarding Airworthiness Directives.)

4.4.2.1.2 The type, model and serial number of the aircraft, engine, propeller, equipment or instrument affected shall be included in the contents of the mandatory continuing airworthiness information. The mandatory information may require additional or more frequent inspections or maintenance or modifications, and usually with a time limit for compliance in terms of a date, flying hours or number of landings.

4.4.2.1.3 The State of Design, in determining the time limit for compliance should, without prejudice to safety considerations, take into account the availability of modification kits, tools, material, etc. It should also take into account the service experience in other States and should not limit its evaluation to the service experience in its own State. Time limits for conducting initial inspections, as well as conducting recurrent inspections, are frequently tailored to the inspection methods being used.

4.4.2.1.4 States with maintenance organisations approved for aircraft types not registered or not operated in that State, or approved for parts or equipment not used in that State, should request the State of Design to provide all mandatory airworthiness information on those types and parts.

4.4.2.1.5 When the State of Design of the engine or propeller is different to the State of Design of the aircraft, the State of Design for the aircraft should review mandatory airworthiness information from the State of Design for the engine or propeller and either promulgate that information as being applicable to the aircraft type in question, or supplement it to take account of the specific installation in the aircraft. The aircraft type design organisation should assist in this review. (Reference Annex 8 Part II paragraph 4.2.1.2)

4.4.2.2 Action by State of Registry upon Receipt
of Mandatory Airworthiness Information

4.4.2.2.1 Annex 8, Part II, 4.2.3d) states:

“The State of Registry shall, upon receipt of mandatory continuing airworthiness information from the State of Design, adopt the mandatory information directly or assess the information received and take appropriate action.”

Legally, the mandatory status of mandatory airworthiness information is limited to the State that has issued that information. It is essential, however, that appropriate action be taken on all affected aircraft and parts in all States concerned. States should therefore carefully consider mandatory airworthiness information issued by the State of Design, as the State of Design and the type design organisation are primarily responsible for issuing this airworthiness information and they normally are the best informed about accidents, incidents and service experience concerning the type design.

4.4.2.2.2 Where the State of Registry legally adopts by reference the mandatory airworthiness information issued by the State of Design and does not provide its operators with the said information, the State of Registry should assure that their operators have access to the mandatory airworthiness information and implement the required actions.

4.4.2.2.3 Some States assess all mandatory airworthiness information issued by States of Design and subsequently issue their own mandatory information. Such States should have the necessary expertise and human resources to do so. States of Registry should verify whether or not the mandatory airworthiness information is applicable to the aircraft on their register and can be accomplished as intended. The aircraft may have been modified or had equipment installed without the type design organisation or the State of Design being directly involved in that modification or installation approval.

4.4.2.2.4 When in receipt of mandatory airworthiness information for an engine or propeller which has a different State of Design to that of the aircraft, the State of Registry should ensure that it has received any associated mandatory airworthiness information from the State of Design for the aircraft. It must make a determination as to which one of the two is more appropriate to the specific operator. In general, the aircraft mandatory airworthiness information will only vary from that of the engine or propeller to account for specific features of the aircraft installation or operation in question.

4.4.2.2.5 Operators and States of Registry should be aware that some States of Design do not issue their mandatory airworthiness information in the form of Airworthiness Directives, and may instead give mandatory status to service bulletins, etc., by requiring the type design organisation to include a statement in the service bulletins, etc., that the information has mandatory status for aircraft registered in the State of Design. Some of these States of Design publish summary lists of service bulletins, etc., which they have classified as mandatory.

4.4.2.2.6 This service information made mandatory by the State of Design should be clearly distinguished from service information that might be declared mandatory by the organisation responsible for the type design. The type design organisation may have classified the information as mandatory for reasons related to improving maintainability, inspectability, lifetime or for liability reasons.

4.4.2.2.7 The operator should accomplish actions made mandatory by its CAA, otherwise the aircraft is not considered airworthy. The operator should also carefully record the actions accomplished. If this is not done conscientiously, the operator may be in a difficult position when surveyed by the CAA and in terms of liability, especially in case of an accident. Proper documentation of mandatory actions will also enable a smoother transfer of aircraft.

4.4.2.2.8 If an operator wishes to comply in an alternative way or desires an extension of the compliance limit associated with mandatory airworthiness information, the approval of the airworthiness authority of the State of Registry must be obtained. For mandatory information issued by the State of Design and accepted by the State of Registry, the latter may not have sufficient knowledge or expertise to make an informed decision. In such cases, the State of Registry may wish to consult the airworthiness authority of the State of Design or accept advice from the type design organisation.

4.4.2.2.9 On occasion, compliance with mandatory airworthiness information has to be effected at very short notice; therefore, operators should be able to receive this information at any time (by telex, fax, etc.) and to develop the necessary actions.

4.4.2.3 Transmission to the State of Design of
Mandatory Airworthiness Information by other States

Annex 8, Part II, 4.2.3e) states:

“The State of Registry shall ensure the transmission to the State of Design of all mandatory continuing airworthiness information which it, as the State of Registry, originated in respect of that aircraft.”

States should only make mandatory requirements additional to those of the State of Design when there are urgent safety-related reasons. Where possible, such action should entail prior consultation with the State of Design, but in all cases the State of Design should be notified as soon as practicable or when the State of Registry has uniquely designed or modified aircraft because of unique airworthiness requirements.

4.4.2.4 Airworthiness Actions by State of
Design and Design Organisation

4.4.2.4.1 Annex 8, Part II, 4.2.1.1b) states:

“The State of Design of an aircraft shall ensure that, in respect of aeroplanes over 5,700kg and helicopters over 3,175kg maximum certificated take-off mass, there exists a system for:

i) receiving information submitted in accordance with 4.2.3f)

ii) deciding if and when airworthiness action is needed;

iii) developing the necessary airworthiness actions; and

iv) promulgating the information on those actions including that required in 4.2.1.1a).”

The State of Design and the type design organisation should assess all airworthiness information received, including the information mentioned under Annex 8, Part II, 4.2.3e) and 4.2.3.f) and information on accident investigations (see 4.4.3.1 below concerning guidance on 4.2.3f) of Annex 8, Part II).

4.4.2.4.2 The type design organisation should respond to the reporting operator and should include in the response advice on the actions needed for the reported service difficulty to ensure continuing airworthiness. The type design organisation should also inform other affected operators.

4.4.2.4.3 Whenever there is evidence that its product is unsafe because of a manufacturing or design defect, the type design organisation should investigate the reason for the defect and report to the State of Design the results of its investigation and any action being taken or proposed to correct the defect. If action is required to correct the defect, the type design organisation should submit the data necessary for the issuance of appropriate mandatory airworthiness information.

4.4.2.4.4 When the State of Design considers that the issuance of mandatory airworthiness information is necessary to correct the unsafe condition, the type design organisation should propose the appropriate design changes and/or required inspections and submit details of these proposals for approval. Following the approval of the proposed design changes or inspections, it should make available to all operators appropriate descriptive data and accomplishment instructions. The organisation responsible for type design should also make updates to user documents not subject to approval by the CAA, such as the aircraft service manual, illustrated parts catalogue, etc.

4.4.3. Other Airworthiness Information
..........................................
4.4.5 Airworthiness Directives

4.4.5.1 General

4.4.5.1.1 A primary safety function of the airworthiness organisation within the CAA is to require correction of unsafe conditions found in an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, equipment or instrument or when such conditions develop in other products of the same design. The unsafe conditions may be due to design deficiencies, manufacturing defects, maintenance programme deficiencies, or other causes. Airworthiness Directives (ADs) usually are the means used to notify aircraft owners and other interested persons of unsafe conditions and to prescribe the conditions under which the product may continue to be operated.

4.4.5.1.2 ADs are divided into two categories:

a) those of an urgent nature requiring immediate compliance upon receipt; and

b) those of a less urgent nature requiring compliance within a relatively longer period.

4.4.5.1.3 The contents of ADs include the aircraft, engine, propeller, equipment or instrument type, model and serial numbers affected. Also included are the compliance time or period, a description of the difficulty experienced, and the necessary corrective action.

4.4.5.1.4 A large number of States operate aircraft that have been manufactured or certificated in another State. In order to continue to maintain such aircraft at a level of airworthiness equivalent to that achieved at type certification, the State in which such aircraft are currently registered needs to regularly obtain all information, particularly ADs, service bulletins, etc., issued by the type certification authority, by the type design organisation or, on rare occasions, by the airworthiness authority of any other State in which the same type of aircraft are registered, particularly where such information pertains to the continuing airworthiness and the prevention of recurring defects in aircraft and its components and equipment. It is therefore necessary that each State receive all continuing airworthiness information relating to aircraft on its register, no matter what State originates the information. It is equally necessary, to facilitate coordinated corrective measures, for the State of Design to receive continuing airworthiness information originated in any other State relating to aircraft it has certificated. With the introduction of the Internet, some States, together with commercial organisations, provide information regarding ADs via this medium.

4.4.5.2 Responsibility for Airworthiness Directives

4.4.5.2.1 Responsibilities of the Operator

4.4.5.2.1.1 The manner in which the operator complies with ADs issued by the State of Registry depends upon the arrangements under which the operator has leased, chartered or otherwise acquired control of an aircraft. The operator may arrange with the owner for the latter to carry out all actions arising out of ADs, or the operator may arrange to carry them out himself.

4.4.5.2.1.2 The operator will determine by which means the operator will be keptkeep informed on ADs. However, the operator must ensure that the ADs have been implemented in the manner prescribed and refrain from engaging in flight operations contrary to the provisions of the applicable ADs.

4.4.5.2.2 The Owner’s Role

4.4.5.2.2.1 The owner should not use his aircraft, or knowingly allow it to be used by others, except in compliance with ADs issued up to date. If the owner leases the aircraft or allows another person to maintain it, the owner should take effective steps to assure compliance with ADs. The owner cannot assume that others will take over the burden of maintenance automatically. The situation may call for a written agreement, or a verbal one, depending on circumstances. But there should be no doubt as to who will take the necessary responsive action to ADs.

4.4.5.2.2.2 In some cases, the owner may elect to also comply with ADs issued by other than the State of Registry in order to facilitate transfer of registration at the end of a lease.

4.4.5.2.3 The Role of Aircraft Maintenance Engineers or Maintenance Organisations

4.4.5.2.3.1 The responsibility of the aircraft maintenance engineer (AME) or maintenance organisation with regard to AD compliance should also be clearly understood. Some operators may be under the impression that when they submit their aircraft for maintenance, or a progressive inspection, the AME will routinely ensure that all ADs in effect on that date are complied with before signing off on the inspection. This is not necessarily true. Some ADs in effect may deal with components which are not normally part of the inspection, such as radios. Also, some ADs already in effect at the time of the inspection may have delayed compliance dates; in such cases the AME is not obliged to act upon them, and may not do so unless requested by the operator.

4.4.5.2.3.2 Whenever an AD has been complied with by an AME, the AME should not only record the date of compliance and time in service in the aircraft maintenance records, but also furnish a description of the work done — several alternative methods of compliance may be possible, and at some later date it may be important to know which route was followed. Before the aircraft goes back into service, whoever accepts it from the shop should first determine that the maintenance record, including ADs, is fully up to date.

4.4.5.2.3.3 The responsibility for compliance with ADs cannot be disclaimed by any of the parties involved in its operation or maintenance, namely the AME, maintenance organisation, owner or operator. All have some degree of responsibility, depending always upon the circumstances under which the aircraft is used; all are expected to know about the procedures for issuing ADs, and to understand their role in compliance.

......................."
 
Техник

Техник

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Ученый,
Просто приятно общаться с людьми в теме! :pivo:
 
F

FW

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“The State of Registry shall, upon receipt of mandatory continuing airworthiness information from the State of Design, adopt the mandatory information directly or assess the information received and take appropriate action.”
красивая фраза, которая не выполняется на практике. Кстати, ИКАО в этих вопросах совсем не в почёте.
Техник,
и в чём я не прав? :rolleyes: Кстати, наиболее весомый документ Part-M.
Ученый,
интересно Ваше мнение, почему ИКАО документы совсем не интересны эксплуатации? Может показатьсq странным, но всё что касается документов эксплуатации, совсем не имеет силы.
 
Техник

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интересно Ваше мнение, почему ИКАО документы совсем не интересны эксплуатации? Может показатьсq странным, но всё что касается документов эксплуатации, совсем не имеет силы.
Я не Ученый, но документы эти неинтересны потому, что не должно.
Это все равно, что по документам ООН в районном суде дела о краже козы разбирать.
ИКАО для авиационных властей интересно, те свои доки выпускают и т.п.
ЛС дочитал до конца? :D
 
Ученый

Ученый

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Ученый,
интересно Ваше мнение, почему ИКАО документы совсем не интересны эксплуатации? Может показатьсq странным, но всё что касается документов эксплуатации, совсем не имеет силы.
Документы ИКАО по всем направлениям "не имеют силы", поскольку так устроена ИКАО. Все положения Приложений к конвенции реализуются только через национальное законодательство и их можно не выполнять, только надо уведомить ИКАО и быть готовым к неудобной огласке этого обстоятельства.
Приведенной мной толкование из руководства 9760 абсолютно не обязательно к исполнению, но интересно тем, что это консолидированное видение порядка и процедур рассматриваемого процесса представителями основных авиационных администраций мира (FAA, UK CAA, DGAC, LBA, CAA Австралии, да и из EASA был человек)
 
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Ученый

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Интересно, что вся эта дискуссия была на фоне того, что тогда уже было постановление DECISION No. 2/2003 OF THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE AGENCY
of 14 October 2003 on the implementation of airworthiness directives for products, parts and appliances designed in third countries and repealing Decision No 1/2003 of the Executive Director of the Agency of 26 September 2003 on the implementation of airworthiness directives for aircraft designed in third countries

"Article 1
Any airworthiness directive issued by a state of design for an aircraft imported from a
third country, or for an engine, propeller, part or appliance imported from a third country
and installed on an aircraft registered in an EU Member state, shall apply unless the
Agency has issued a different Decision before the date of entry into force of that
airworthiness directive".
 
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