Электроавиация

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Seerndv

Местный
ЦИАМ на МАКС: в фокусе – электричество
28 Августа 2019



В настоящее время Институт в кооперации с ведущими разработчиками и опытно-конструкторскими бюро, в частности с Институтом проблем химической физики РАН, реализует два проекта, сообщил Михаил Гордин почетным гостям. Первый посвящен разработке элементов демонстратора полностью электрической силовой установки мощностью 60кВт (80 л.с.) на основе водородных топливных элементов для легкого двухместного самолета. В ЦИАМ спроектировали и уже завершили изготовление электродвигателя и его системы управления.

– Вес двигателя около 20 кг, он имеет векторное управление, – пояснил Михаил Гордин.

Второй проект в области электродвижения – демонстратор гибридной силовой установки с электрическим двигателем мощностью 500 кВт (679 л.с.) для самолетов местных воздушных линий. С ним гости Авиасалона также могли ознакомиться в рамках МАКС. Обмотки электродвигателя выполнены из высокотемпературных сверхпроводников, обладающих практически нулевым сопротивлением. Разработкой двигателя, испытания которого проводятся на стендах ЦИАМ, занимается ЗАО «СуперОкс» при поддержке Фонда перспективных исследований.

В ближайшей перспективе планируется установить гибридную силовую установку на летающую лабораторию на базе самолета Як-40 и провести ее летные испытания. Как будет выглядеть тандем самолета и силовой установки, ЦИАМ также показал на МАКС – специалисты представили макет летающей лаборатории.
 
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ЦИАМ планирует 60 кВт на 20 кг ...:rolleyes:
А Siemens уже имеет:
Design and development
The SP260D is a design producing 261 kW (350 hp), with an inrunner coil. It has a 95% efficiency.
The low working rpm of the engine means that it can turn a propeller at efficient speeds without the need for a reduction drive.
Specifications (SP260D)
Data from Tacke
General characteristics
Type: Brushless electric aircraft engine
Length: 300 mm (11.8 in)
Diameter: 418 mm (16.5 in)
Dry weight: 50 kg (110.2 lb)
Components
Coil type:inrunner
Cooling system: air
Reduction gear: none

Performance
Power output: 261 kW (350 hp)
Voltage: V nominal
Best efficiency: 95
Power-to-weight ratio 5.22 kW/kg
- почти в два с половиной раза лучше
 
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Австралийцы переделали поршневой гидросамолет в электрический

DHC-2
Harbour Air
Австралийская компания MagniX завершила переделку поршневого гидросамолета de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver в электрический. Как пишет Aviation Week, помимо прочего на самолет установили электромотор Magni500 мощностью 540 киловатт. В ближайшее время планируется приступить к наземным испытаниям самолета, а его первый полет планируется на конец ноября 2019 года.
Конвертация гидросамолета Beaver проведена в рамках соглашения с канадским авиаперевозчиком Harbour Air, заключенного в апреле текущего года. В рамках этого договора австралийская компания должна провести конвертацию и испытания одного гидросамолета, а затем, если проверки окажутся успешными, — еще 42 машин.
Двигатель Magni500, самый мощный из разработанных MagniX, ранее прошел масштабные тестовые испытания на предприятии компании в Голд-Косте в Австралии. На время испытаний мотор смонтировали на носовую часть пассажирского самолета Cessna 208 Caravan. На мотор установили четырехлопастной воздушный винт.
Magni500 использует замкнутую жидкостную систему охлаждения. В крейсерском режиме мотор способен развивать частоту вращения вала в 1900 оборотов в минуту и выдавать крутящий момент около 2,8 тысячи ньютон-метров.
Ранее сообщалось, что в рамках конвертации на DHC-2 установят аккумуляторную батарею емкостью 200 ватт-час. Ее полного заряда должно хватить на 30 минут полета, а также еще на 30 минут полета в случае, если самолет перенаправят в другой аэропорт. Продолжительность полета рассчитана исходя из полной пассажирской загрузки — 6 пассажиров.
Базовый гидросамолет DHC-2 имеет 9,2 метра в длину и размах крыла 14,6 метра. Он оснащен поплавковым шасси. Гидросамолет способен развивать скорость до 255 километров в час и выполнять полеты на расстояние до 732 километров. DHC-2 оснащен поршневым двигателем мощностью 450 лошадиных сил.
Ранее сообщалось, что немецкие компании Elektra Solar и EADCO создали консорциум Scylax, который в ближайшее время приступит к разработке полностью электрического самолета для региональных пассажирских перевозок. Самолет получил обозначение E10. Его пассажировместимость составит 10 человек.
Согласно действующему плану, демонстратор технологий электрического самолета будет создан через три года, после чего немецкая авиакомпания Frisia, один из инвесторов консорциума Scylax, приступит к его опытной эксплуатации. Европейская сертификация нового самолета запланирована на 2027-2028 год.
Василий Сычёв
- FLIGHT INTERNATIONAL , правда, о том полгода назад предвещал:

Harbour Air aims to lead electric flight with Beaver seaplanes
  • 29 MARCH, 2019
  • SOURCE: FLIGHT INTERNATIONAL
  • BY: JON HEMMERDINGER
  • BOSTON
Some old planes in Canada may be getting very new engines, and could become the first electric-powered passenger aircraft.
Harbour Air Group aims within several years to begin passenger flights with electric-powered de Havilland DHC-2 Beavers, an achievement that could bring electric passenger flight out of the purely conceptual realm.
The Vancouver-based company intends by November to achieve first flight of a Beaver powered by a Magnix magni500 electric motor. The lithium-battery backed system will throw off 750hp (559kW).
"That's totally doable because the technology required is there today," Harbour founder and chief executive Greg McDougall tells FlightGlobal. "It's sitting there on the shelf. There's no regulatory impediments."
The flight will kick off development and testing, as the company seeks regulatory certifications from either the Federal Aviation Administration or Transport Canada – whichever agency has a clearer path toward electric-aircraft certification, he says.
McDougall estimates Harbour will receive required approvals and begin passenger flights one to two years after the first flight.
"The opportunity to ride in an all-electric airplane, the first in the world, is a pretty big seller," he says. "I've been interested in disruptive technology for a long time, which is kind of ironic considering the age of the aircraft we operate."
Indeed, some of Harbour's Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior-powered Beavers were manufactured in the 1950s, according to Cirium's Fleets Analyzer.
Asset Image

A Harbour Air Beaver at docked at Sechelt, British Columbia
Harbour Air Seaplanes
McDougall envisions eventually installing magni500s in all Harbour's 42 aircraft. The company also operates Otters and Twin Otters powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6s. Viking Air now owns the rights to those aircraft and the Beaver.
Harbour's plan comes as major aerospace players invest in electric and hybrid-electric passenger aircraft concepts. In 2017, for instance, JetBlue Airways and Boeing helped back Zunum Aero, which is developing a 10- to 50-seat hybrid-electric aircraft.
But McDougall says Harbour has something others do not: flight routes ideally suited to existing electric-engine technology.
The company operates a network of 12 short hops from Vancouver, with flights averaging about 30min, says McDougall. Destinations include Seattle Whistler, Victoria and elsewhere along coastal British Columbia.
Those routes are perfect for the magni500 propulsion system, which will have power enough for 30min flights and 30min reserve flying, he says. The engine provides more than enough power for Beavers and "basically mimics" the horsepower of the PT6.
FlightGlobal could not immediately reach Magnix for comment. The company has offices in Seattle and Australia.
After flights, Harbour will need to charge the batteries or swap in fresh battery packs. But McDougall notes lithium batteries charge quickly, limited only by the amount of "amperage you can throw at them".
Electric engines will actually save Harbour Air money by reducing fuel and maintenance costs, McDougall says, noting P&W engines require a $250,000 overhaul every two years.
"The moving parts are infinitesimal compared to what there is in a turbine or piston engine," he says of the magni500 system. "The maintenance is virtually nil."
 
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Местный
Региональные самолеты Twin Otter станут гибридными

DHC-6-300
John W / Flickr
Американская компания Ampaire совместно с оператором обслуживания и ремонта авиационной техники Ikhana Aircraft Services занялась разработкой гибридной модификации регионального самолета DHC-6 Twin Otter. Как пишет Flightglobal, предварительные исследования по проекту планируется завершить до конца текущего года.
Самолет DHC-6 был разработан канадской компанией de Havilland Canada в первой половине 1960-х годов и совершил первый полет в 1965 году. Длина Twin Otter составляет 15,8 метра, а размах крыла — 19,8 метра. Самолет максимальной взлетной массой 5,7 тонны рассчитан на перевозку до 19 пассажиров на расстояние до 1,2 тысячи километров.
DHC-6 создан как самолет с укороченными взлетом и посадкой и может использоваться с аэродромов с короткими взлетно-посадочными полосами. Кроме того, Twin Otter может применяться на неподготовленных аэродромах. Самолет выпускается до сих пор и используется на коротких региональных маршрутах, в том числе для организации сообщения между островами.
В рамках гибридизации Twin Otter разработчики намерены заменить турбовинтовые двигатели самолета электрическими. На самолет также установят аккумуляторную батарею и дизельгенератор, который будет питать электромоторы и заряжать аккумуляторы.
Ikhana Aircraft Services имеет сертификат, разрешающий компании проводить переделки самолетов Twin Otter для увеличения их максимальной взлетной массы до 6,4 тонны. В Ampaire полагают, что благодаря таким переделкам на самолет можно будет установить тяжелую аккумуляторную батарею без ухудшения пассажировместимости и грузоподъемности.
Предполагается, что переделка турбовинтового Twin Otter в гибридный, благодаря его пассажировместимости, будет экономически оправдана. В рамках гибридизации самолета планируется использовать наработки, полученные при реализации другого проекта по созданию гибридного летательного аппарата — Cessna 337 Skymaster.
На Cessna 337 разработчики заменили задний двигатель с толкающим воздушным винтом на электромотор. При этом передний двигатель с тянущим воздушным винтом был доработан для работы на газе. В таком варианте самолет уже успешно прошел несколько летных испытаний.
В ближайшее время Ampaire планирует завершить еще одну переделку Cessna 337. На этом самолете газовый поршневой двигатель будет установлен в хвостовой части фюзеляжа, а электрический — в носовой. При этом аккумуляторную батарею перенесут из кабины в подвесной контейнер. В таком виде самолет испытают в первом квартале 2020 года, а до конца 2021 года планируется завершить его сертификацию.
После того, как Ampaire и Ikhana Aircraft Services завершат разработку гибридной версии DHC-6 Twin Otter, такая доработка будет предлагаться авиакомпаниям. Наработки, полученные в рамках проекта, Ampaire затем будет использовать для разработки гибридной версии пассажирского самолета DHC-8. Его пассажировместимость в зависимости от версии составляет от 37 до 70 человек.
Ранее стало известно, что австралийская компания MagniX завершила переделку поршневого гидросамолета de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver в электрический. Помимо прочего на самолет установили электромотор Magni500 мощностью 540 киловатт. В ближайшее время планируется приступить к наземным испытаниям самолета, а его первый полет планируется на конец ноября 2019 года.
Василий Сычёв
-источник:

Ampaire and Ikhana work toward hybrid-electric-powered Twin Otter
  • Ampaire and Ikhana work toward hybrid-electric-powered Twin Otter
    • 23 OCTOBER, 2019
    • SOURCE: FLIGHTGLOBAL.COM
    • BY: JON HEMMERDINGER
  • Electric aircraft developer Ampaire and services provider Ikhana Aircraft Services have joined forces to study the feasibility of equipping de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otters with hybrid electric propulsion.
    The companies, which already work together to equip Cessna 337 Skymasters with hybrid-electric systems, are now moving further along the hybrid-electric path.
    The Twin Otter study comes after Ampaire won a contract from NASA, which is seeking to advance electric technology as part of its Electric Aircraft Propulsion programme.
    Ampaire enlisted help from Ikhana, which specialises in aircraft modifications, engineering and certification work. Ikhana performs life-extensions on Twin Otters and holds a supplemental type certificates to increase Twin Otter maximum takeoff weights from 5,443kg (12,000lb) to 6,350kg. That increase could prove valuable for carrying heavy batteries, says Ikhana chief executive John Zublin.
    He calls Twin Otters "perfect aircraft" for hybrid-electric modifications because they carry enough passengers – 19 – to make such technology economically feasible.
    "There is so much rumbling going on in the world of electric aircraft – it is something that is going to get there," Zublin says.
    Ampaire envisions Twin Otters with hybrid propulsion combining a diesel engine and an electric system, says Ampaire product manager Brice Nzeukou.
    The companies expect to complete their study by the end of the year.
    Ampaire flew an electric-and-gas-powered Cessna 337 Skymaster this year. With assistance from Ikhana, Ampaire replaced the 337's rear engine (which drives a pusher prop) with an electric propulsion system, leaving the forward engine in place.
    It is now swapping the configuration around – putting the engine in the back and moving the electric system forward, with batteries removed from the cabin and installed in a pod under the aircraft.
    Ampaire's partner on the 337, Hawaii-based Mokulele Airlines, will fly the aircraft in this new configuration in the first quarter of next year, says Nzeukou.
    Ampaire hopes to have the modified 337 certificated by the end of 2021.
    The 337 and Twin Otter programmes will help develop technology that could eventually apply to a small airliner like a De Havilland Aircraft Canada Dash 8 in the 2030-2035 timeframe, Nzeukou says.
    "When you are dealing with powerplants, it takes a while," says Zublin. "Ampaire is going about this in the right way."
 
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Materials Science
Free of Heavy Metals, New Battery Design Could Alleviate Environmental Concerns
December 18, 2019 | Written by: Young-hye Na
Categorized: Chemistry | IBM Research-Almaden | Materials Science
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Today, IBM Research is building on a long history of materials science innovation to unveil a new battery discovery. This new research could help eliminate the need for heavy metals in battery production and transform the long-term sustainability of many elements of our energy infrastructure.
As battery-powered alternatives for everything from vehicles to smart energy grids are explored, there remain significant concerns around the sustainability of available battery technologies.
Many battery materials, including heavy metals such as nickel and cobalt, pose tremendous environmental and humanitarian risks. Cobalt in particular, which is largely available in central Africa, has come under fire for careless and exploitative extraction practices.1
Using three new and different proprietary materials, which have never before been recorded as being combined in a battery, our team at IBM Research has discovered a chemistry for a new battery which does not use heavy metals or other substances with sourcing concerns.
The materials for this battery are able to be extracted from seawater, laying the groundwork for less invasive sourcing techniques than current material mining methods.

IBM researchers work in the IBM Research Battery Lab to combine and test unique materials and formulations for more sustainable battery technologies.
Just as promising as this new battery’s composition is its performance potential. In initial tests, it proved it can be optimized to surpass the capabilities of lithium-ion batteries in a number of individual categories including lower costs, faster charging time, higher power and energy density, strong energy efficiency and low flammability.
New battery design could outperform lithium-ion across several sustainable technologies
Discovered in IBM Research’s Battery Lab, this design uses a cobalt and nickel-free cathode material, as well as a safe liquid electrolyte with a high flash point. This unique combination of the cathode and electrolyte demonstrated an ability to suppress lithium metal dendrites during charging, thereby reducing flammability, which is widely considered a significant drawback for the use of lithium metal as an anode material.

A Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) System in the IBM Research Battery Lab, which measures the amount of gas that has evolved from a battery cell during charging and discharging cycles.
This discovery holds significant potential for electric vehicle batteries, for example, where concerns such as flammability, cost and charging time come into play. Current tests show that less than five minutes are required for the battery – configured for high power – to reach an 80 percent state of charge. Combined with the relatively low cost of sourcing the materials, the goal of a fast-charging, low-cost electric vehicle could become a reality.
In the quickly evolving arena of flying vehicles and electric aircrafts, having access to batteries with very high-power density, which can scale a power load quickly, is critical. When optimized for this factor, this new battery design exceeds more than 10,000 W/L, outperforming the most powerful lithium-ion batteries available. Additionally, our tests have shown this battery can be designed for a long-life cycle, making it an option for smart power grid applications and new energy infrastructures where longevity and stability is key.
Overall, this battery has shown the capacity to outperform existing lithium-ion batteries not only in the previously listed applications, but can also be optimized for a range of specific benefits, including:
  • Lower cost: The active cathode materials tend to cost less because they are free of cobalt, nickel, and other heavy metals. These materials are typically very resource-intensive to source, and also have raised concerns over their sustainability.
  • Faster charging: Less than five minutes required to reach an 80 percent state of charge (SOC), without compromising specific discharge capacity.
  • High power density: More than 10,000 W/L. (exceeding the power level that lithium-ion battery technology can achieve).
  • High energy density: More than 800 Wh/L, comparable to the state-of-art lithium-ion battery.
  • Excellent energy efficiency: More than 90 percent (calculated from the ratio of the energy to discharge the battery over the energy to charge the battery).
  • Low flammability of electrolytes
From lab to industry with automotive, electrolyte and battery manufacturers
To move this new battery from early stage exploratory research into commercial development, IBM Research has joined with Mercedes-Benz Research and Development North America, Central Glass, one of the top battery electrolyte suppliers in the world, and Sidus, a battery manufacturer, to create a new next-generation battery development ecosystem. While plans for the larger development of this battery are still in the exploratory phase, our hope is that this budding ecosystem will help to bring these batteries into reality.
Accelerating materials discovery with AI
Moving forward, the team has also implemented an artificial intelligence (AI) technique called semantic enrichment to further improve battery performance by identifying safer and higher performance materials. Using machine learning techniques to give human researchers access to insights from millions of data points to inform their hypothesis and next steps, researchers can speed up the pace of innovation in this important field of study.
Building on a history of exploration and innovation in materials science
Using a multidisciplinary approach combining materials science, molecular chemistry, electrical engineering, advanced battery lab equipment, and computer simulation, the Battery Lab at IBM Research draws on IBM Research’s history of advancing materials science.

Maccor Coin Cell Test Equipment in the IBM Research Battery Lab, which evaluates the electrochemical performance of the coin cells fabricated in-house in the lab.
IBM Research’s invention of chemical amplification, for example, helped propel the growth and advancement of Moore’s Law – ushering in an era of faster and cheaper semiconductor development that now is the backbone of electronic devices.
When we set out to explore solutions to the challenges associated with batteries today – and thus certain obstacles to renewable energy as a whole — we drew on IBM Research’s strong infrastructure that allows us to study how things work on a molecular and atomic level. This foundation is what has propelled our leadership in a number of areas.
Atomic force microscopy, for example, was pioneered and invented by IBM researchers. This method has allowed countless scientists, including our team building new battery technology, to study the forces and movements between materials at incredibly precise levels.
Combining this materials innovation and expertise in catalysis for applications ranging from plastics recycling to semiconductor fabrication – coupled with a deep understanding of chemical mechanisms – enabled the team within the Battery Lab at IBM Research to bring this exciting new battery technology to bear.
 
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While plans for the larger development of this battery are still in the exploratory phase, our hope is that this budding ecosystem will help to bring these batteries into reality.
Несомненно, это ключевая фраза сего опуса. :)

Moving forward, the team has also implemented an artificial intelligence (AI)...
Ну, теперь победа точно обеспечена. :)

При этом ни слова о конструкции батареи и применяемых материалах. Видимо, чтобы идею не украли. :)
Ну, и на хрен сюда такие "пустышки" вешать? Ведь информации нет совсем, сплошное биение пяткой себя в грудь.
 
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Seerndv

Местный
- если так рассуждать , любые статьи пустышки.
 
alexfill2015

alexfill2015

Алексей
Rolls-Royce построил самый быстрый в мире электросамолет
1577310672092.png

Концерн Rolls-Royce представил самый скоростной в мире самолет с электрической силовой установкой - одноместный моноплан с одним воздушным винтом.
Машина, названная ionBird, является тестовым прототипом проекта разработки высокоскоростного воздушного судна с нулевым выбросом углекислого газа.
Кульминацию проекта ознаменует запланированный на май будущего года перелет из Лондона в Париж при достижении рекордной скорости для электросамолета в 480 км/ч.
ionBird построен по классической аэродинамической схеме с низким расположением крыльев. Трехлопастной воздушный винт спереди приводится от трех электромоторов суммарной мощностью 500 л.с. Винт вращается с меньшей скоростью, чем на самолетах с двигателем внутреннего сгорания, что дает меньше шума и вибраций.
1577310906502.png

Между силовой установкой и кабиной пилота располагается батарея из 6000 элементов питания, снабженная высокоэффективной системой охлаждения. Запас энергии полностью заряженной батареи достаточен для снабжения 250 домохозяйств (за какой срок не сказано). КПД силовой установки превышает 90%.
Прототип предназначен для испытаний силовой установки, в том числе в режиме максимальной мощности.
Партнерами Rolls-Royce в разработке электроустановки для высокоскоростных полетов с нулевым выбросом СО2 являются производитель электрооборудования YASA и стартап Electroflight. Половину бюджета проекта покрыл правительственный грант на научные исследования.
Промышленный концерн Rolls-Royce сегодня специализируется на производстве продукции для оборонного и энергетического комплексов, авиакосмической отрасли и судостроения. Производство прославленных автомобилей выведено в отдельную компанию в 1973 году. Автомобильная компания Rolls-Royce Motor Cars с 1998 года входит в состав концерна BMW.
 
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Старожил
Некоторые технические подробности по ionBird.

Машина предназначена для установления нового рекорда скорости для электрических самолетов, который в настоящее время принадлежит самолёту Extra 330LE с двигателем Siemens (210 миль/ч).
В самолете используется блок батарей из 6000 ячеек, который, по словам компании RR, является «самым энергоемким блоком, когда-либо собранным для самолета; он содержит столько энергии, что можно пролететь 200 миль (от Лондона до Парижа) на одной зарядке».
Воздушный винт вращают три осевых электродвигателя. Их максимальная суммарная мощность - 500 л.с.

Полный (т.е. с рекламными взвизгами) текст - вот здесь.
 
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constructor

constructor

Старожил
Причём делал это с двигателем в 350 л.с. А здесь с пятисоткой надеются получить 480 км/ч.
Из этого делаем вывод, что потребное количество бензина легче чем аккумуляторы. Вот такая экология, лишний вес возить.
 
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A_Z

Старожил
constructor, этот вывод сделан уже давно - так что имеем всего лишь ещё одно подтверждение.
 
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Alex72

Местный
Из этого делаем вывод, что потребное количество бензина легче чем аккумуляторы. Вот такая экология, лишний вес возить.
достаточно представить себе ситуацию, когда продукты сгорания бензина/ керосина необходимо возить с собой, и всё с электричеством станет предельно ясно. ;)
 
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A_Z

Старожил
вот я точно не уверен, но вроде для быстрохода ставили какой-то форсированный вариант. мерещится мне что он что-то около 500 сил и давал.
Где-то пишут про форсированный двигатель, а где-то говорят, что движок был штатным, и всё сводилось к его точным регулировкам.
В любом случае понятно, что "электричка" от R-R имеет куда большую нагрузку на крыло, и потому угол атаки приходится увеличивать, что высокой скорости не способствует.
 
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Seerndv

Местный
Bell’s eVTOL vision changes as it eliminates two rotors and goes all electric
Bell’s eVTOL vision changes as it eliminates two rotors and goes all electric
By Garrett Reim, Amarillo, Texas6 January 2020

Bell changed the design of its proposed electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) aircraft, removing two rotor ducts and adding a purely electric propulsion option, after hearing from potential customers that shorter inner city travel would likely come before longer-range trips between metropolitan areas.
The new demonstrator aircraft is called the Bell Nexus 4EX. The “E” stands for electric and the “X” stands for experimental.
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Nexus4EX-Image_PressRelease

Source: Bell
Bell Nexus 4EX eVTOL concept rendering
The Nexus 4EX will have four rotor ducts instead of the six rotor ducts proposed for the original Nexus eVTOL, which was unveiled a year ago at the 2019 CES in Las Vegas. By removing two ducts Bell says it can build an aircraft that has less drag and thus is more efficient in cruise mode .
Efficiency is critically important as battery energy density remains one of the chief limiting factors for electric aircraft, says Scott Drennan, vice-president of innovation with Bell.
Bell expects that its 4EX would be capable of flying up to 52nm (97km) while carrying four to five passengers, plus a pilot.
“The battery energy power densities right now are right on the edge for a mission like this,” says Drennan. He believes battery energy density could improve 10% to 15% by the mid-2020s, when Bell hopes for the eVTOL industry to take off.
For longer flights, Bell is working on a hybrid-electric variant of the 4EX, which will use a turbo-generator to charge batteries, which will power electric motors. That aircraft would have a range of 130nm. The hybrid-electric aircraft would be developed after the all-electric aircraft.
With its change to all-electric power, Bell dropped its former propulsion supplier Safran. A replacement electric motor supplier is to be named in early 2020. Bell says it is still considering Safran for hybrid propulsion.
The company says the Nexus 4EX demonstrator will likely closely resemble the eVTOL aircraft it eventually puts forward for commercial certification; a regulatory hurdle it expects to clear in the latter half of the 2020s.
“You’re not going to see it have an electrical system, or a duct, or a rotor system that is markedly different than what you’ll see down the road in the certification plan,” says Drennan.

Focused flight envelope
Whereas traditional helicopters are designed as utility vehicles, with broad abilities that vary from emergency medical service, police, or passenger transportation work, Bell envisions its eVTOL aircraft having a much narrower performance envelope, purely focused on moving passengers as efficiently as possible from point A to point B.
The Nexus 4EX is to have a max gross takeoff weight of about 3,200kg (7,000lb). It would have a cruise speed of 130kt (241km/h).
Nexus4EX-Image_Cover

Source: Bell
Bell Nexus 4EX eVTOL concept rendering
Based on conversations and surveys of potential customers and stakeholders, such as ride-share companies, as well as city, state and national governments, the company estimates flights on average would be 13nm to 22nm in length.
Each aircraft is likely to operate 2,000h per year, the company says.
Bell believes hundreds to thousands of eVTOLs would be needed within a city to significantly change traffic patterns on the roads. The company declines to say how many aircraft would be required to reach profitability, noting its analysis is ongoing.
The manufacturer anticipates that eVTOLs would be primarily used for faster ride-share, public transportation and cost-sensitive traditional helicopter applications.
At least in the beginning, Bell doesn’t anticipate eVTOLs creating new travel demand – trips people would not take if they didn’t have access to the speed and range of the aircraft. Rather, early users will likely fly out of curiosity or experience seeking. Gradually, the company expects the aircraft to become routine part of business and personal travel, says Drennan.
Bell says it is forecasting demand using traffic, mobility and cellphone databases, examining how different factors such as passenger load, weather, digital infrastructure, and eVTOL airport loading patterns, might affect usage.
Predicting aircraft usage will be key to managing the battery charge levels and lifecycles of a fleet of eVTOLs, says Drennan.
“State of charge at any given moment in the life – and really the operating day – effects the next flight available because of time of recharge required and the life of the battery,” he says. “Therefore, it is imperative to smartly manage fleet operations and battery system operations by mixing flight distances to optimise operational cadence and battery life for our customers.”
The Bell Nexus 4EX’s batteries are to be supplied by Electric Power Systems. Algorithms within that company’s battery management system will be used to monitor battery temperature, current, voltage, discharge and charge rates.
The stringent performance requirements of eVTOL aircraft means degraded batteries could likely be resold and recycled into other industries, such as the automobile, boat or smart power grid sectors, which have less demanding power needs, says Drennan.

Automated flight controls
Bell is aiming to build an eVTOL that has fully autonomous flight controls. However, to initially gain public trust and US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification the aircraft will have a pilot or “mission manager” onboard as backup.
Indeed, because eVTOL aircraft are so novel Bell is taking the liberty to rethink many aspects of the aircraft’s flight controls, including removing the helicopter’s traditional collective, cyclic and foot pedals.
“When you’re talking about fly-by-wire it just doesn’t make sense anymore to make people move their feet, move their hands and wiggle their ears all in unison to make this thing fly,” says Drennan. “A fly-by-wire aircraft can have control laws that can take into account intention [and] mission. And, if we integrate that in the right way we will take a great step right through the piloted piece to the autonomous.”
In its Future Flight Controls simulator Bell says it has studied how more than 6,000 participants, including professional helicopter pilots, but also a wide variety of amateurs, interact with different arrangements of digital flight controls.
For cost and safety reasons Bell is aiming to ultimately make its eVTOLs fully autonomous. In light of two recent Boeing 737 Max crashes caused by that airliner’s automated flight controls – the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System – Bell is quick to explain its belief that designing an automated eVTOL from scratch is safer than adding automation to an aircraft not initially designed to be automated.
“By starting with the understanding that it’s going to be fully autonomous from the beginning you have a different mental starting point than when you iterate to something over time,” says Michael Thacker, Bell’s executive vice-president for technology and innovation.
The FAA has not formalised regulations for certificating eVTOL aircraft or rules for inner city autonomous flights. To help flush out operating procedures and flight rules, Bell was contracted last year by NASA to conduct flights using its Autonomous Pod Transport 70 cargo drone. The company is to conduct demonstrations in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas airspace in the summer of 2020.
The company also says it is ready to volunteer information to the FAA such as a detailed architecture of the Nexus 4EX’s propulsion and flight control systems, as well as its related safety analysis.
In addition to public and regulatory confidence in safety, Bell believes reducing the amount of noise produced by its eVTOLs will be crucial in getting people to accept hundreds or thousands of aircraft buzzing overhead. The company thinks that a decibel level in the high 70s or low 80s, about 15 decibels quieter than a traditional helicopter, should be its noise goal for the Nexus 4EX.
“Bell will strive for the lowest holistic noise considering not only loudness (decibels), but also tone, ambient noise and community noise tolerance,” says Drennan, noting that people in some cities may accept less sound than those in other regions. “Noise is too critically linked to performance and cost to set an arbitrary loudness level that doesn’t take all of these factors into account.”
- ну и куда Bell с копытом, туда и Hyundai с клешнёй:

Помешались они там все на eVTOL :rolleyes:
 
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Seerndv

Местный
UAV Turbines unveils hybrid-electric 'microturbine' for drones
By Garrett Reim, Los Angeles 10 December 2019
UAV Turbines unveiled on 10 December a demonstrator hybrid-electric “microturbine” for small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) that it says allows drones to harness the efficiency of a turbine and the quick power of an electric motor.
The Monarch Hybrid Range Extender is based on the company’s Monarch 5 turbine, a small turbine demonstrator the company unveiled in September in a Navmar Applied Sciences-made TigerShark, a small Group 3-size UAV usually powered by a piston engine. Group 3 UAVs are classified by the US Army as having a max gross takeoff weight of less than 600kg (1320lb).
UAV Turbines Monarch Hybrid Range Extender

Source: UAV Turbines
UAV Turbines Monarch Hybrid Range Extender on teststand
The use of electric-powered UAVs has increased dramatically in recent years by commercial and military operators as the cost of circuitry such as flight control equipment, electric motors and batteries has declined. In particular, quadcopters with electric propeller systems have proven simpler mechanically and easier to control than traditional piston or gas turbine helicopters.
However, electric-powered UAVs have limited flight duration due to the power output of batteries, which have less energy density than liquid fuel used by piston or turbine engines. UAV Turbines is promising the best of both worlds.
The company’s hybrid system uses a turbine to generate electricity, most of which is used to power electric motors that turn aircraft propellers, while the remaining electricity is siphoned off into a small battery. The system’s batteries serve as a reservoir of energy for flight manoeuvres that require extra power, such as vertical takeoff and landing.
“A common rule of thumb is that liquid fuel contains at least 50 [times] as much energy per weight as batteries,” the company says. “The battery is your sprinter, full of explosive power, while the turbogenerator is your marathoner, lean and efficient.”
The Monarch Hybrid Range Extender can provide UAVs with up to 33shp (25kW), says Fred Frigerio, senior vice-president of engineering with UAV Turbines. The engine weights around 27kg and the total hybrid system weighs closer to 54kg.
UAV Turbines Monarch Hybrid Range Extender - 3

Source: UAV Turbines
UAV Turbines Monarch Hybrid Range Extender on teststand
The hybrid system eliminates mechanical complexity and weight, says Frigerio.
“Instead of having a shaft doing power transmission, you have cables going into an electric motor,” he explains.
In addition to having fewer hefty mechanics, weight is saved by carrying smaller batteries and relying on liquid fuel, which burns off during flight, says Frigerio.
Much of UAV Turbine’s technology was developed as part of US Army programmes such as the service’s 2000s-era modernisation effort called Future Combat Systems and its Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Engine programme, says Frigerio.
The company does not have any customers for the hybrid turbine, emphasising it is a demonstrator that is not optimised to specific applications. Early interest in the system has predominately come from the US military, though the company is also pitching it as a powerplant for commercial UAV cargo applications, says Frigerio.
 
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